Basic introduction to hematology
Greetings hope this first class finds you in perfect conditions. Welcome to the Hematology online course provided by the University of Guanajuato. I’m Clara Alba Betancourt, PhD, and I’ll be delighted to be your advisor in this new experience.
In introduction to hematology class, you are going to have a big picture of what you can learn in this course, starting from how much blood an adult person has, the definition of hematology, going through some general concepts that are going to be reviewed along the course like blood functions, blood cell components, the site of blood formation, some Important vitamins.
Also, you will be able to check web pages of some of the International Hematology Associations, which will be very helpful in searching for new information and updates.
Some hematology history will be reviewed, to have background for the Information that is going to be reviewed in the course, to understand some concepts and key elements used in hematology.
This is a short but substantial class, hope you’ll enjoy It.
What Is blood?
Blood is a red liquid which circulates within our entire body, pumped by the heart.
What is the blood function?
To nourishes our body organs.
Why is it red color?
How much blood do we have Inside our bodies?
In an average adult, blood makes up 6 to 8% of total body weight, which is equivalent to 5 to 6 liters of blood, like three 2-liter bottles of soda. The tubes used to collect blood usually comprise 2 or 3 tablespoons of blood, which does not represent a considerable loss of blood.
Do we have different types of blood?
What is hematology?
- Hematology is the study of the blood. But also, it includes the study of blood cells formation, blood disorders, coagulation, blood transfusion:
- Concentration analysis,
- Structure of blood cells,
- Precursors in the bone marrow;
- Chemical constituents of plasma or serum related to the structure and function of blood cells;
- Function of platelets and proteins involved in blood coagulation;
- Blood type;
- Transfusion medicine.
What is the difference between taking a blood sample with or without anticoagulant?
What are the components of blood?
Which are the blood cells and what are their functions?
Where are the blood cells produced?
In the bone marrow.
Can they be produced in other tissues in adulthood?
Yes, by a process called Extramedullary hematopoiesis.
A classic example of EMH is increased ectopic erythropoiesis in the liver or spleen under conditions of hypoxia due to increased erythropoietin production.
What Is an erythrocyte histogram?
It Is helpful to visualize If the erythrocytes are small, normal or big, and also If they have different sizes In one sample.
Why is vitamin B12 important for hematology?
How would you determine that the destruction of erythrocytes is due to immune causes?
The direct antiglobulin test, better known as direct Coombs’ test, demonstrates the presence of antibodies or complement on the surface of the red blood cell and is a cornerstone in the diagnosis of autoimmune hemolytic anemia.
Why is it important to measure clotting times?
Why is vitamin k important?
Four coagulation factors are vitamin K-dependent.
A little bit of History
DEUTERONOMY: Blood is Life
Theory of humours
Blood, in wounds; black bile, in stools, particularly in the mane; phlegm, in nasal catarrh; yellow bile, in vomiting.
- There are three stages in any disease.
- Change in the humoral proportions.
- Reaction of the organism to this alteration, manifested by fever or «ebullition».
- The final crisis, in which the alteration ends with the elimination of the humor that is in excess, or with death.
And from the necessity of the elimination of the humor, derived the concept of bloodletting.
Hippocrates recommended therapeutic bloodletting near the diseased organ to eliminate the excessive humors located there (derivative effect) and far from the diseased organ to prevent these humors from continuing to reach it (revulsive effects).
Derivative bloodletting should not necessarily be copious, and it was customary to practice it with leeches or suction cups.
The revulsive type was more abundant and was performed with a knife (phlebotomy).
Bleeding is currently only applied in very specific cases such as polyglobulia or hemochromatosis.
Ingestion or bathing in blood.
- Hematology is the study of blood, Including blood cells and bone marrow characteristics.
- Hematology also studies coagulation factors and some aspects of Immunology related concepts.
- There are some vitamins Important In the blood cells as well as the coagulation factors.
- American Society of Hematology
- The future of Nursing
- New Insights into Erythropoiesis: The Roles of Folate, Vitamin B12, and Iron
- Vitamin K-Dependent Coagulation Factors That May be Responsible for Both Bleeding and Thrombosis (FII, FVII, and FIX)
- History of blood. Ministry of Health Malta
- History of hematology