Profesiones y ocupaciones / Origen, antecedentes personales e identidad cultural
Welcome to this 4th class!!!
We know that talking about work is one of the most common types of conversation in any language and so it is important to be able to recognize and discuss various types of jobs, this might be to talk about what you do for work or to be able to talk to others about their jobs, as well as being able to understand conversations where careers are being discussed. You can begin your journey to adding English job names to your vocabulary by carefully reading through this section.
Also important is to identify the person doing the action in the sentence and in this class, we will talk about personal pronouns as a short word we use as a simple substitute for the proper name of a person. Each of the English personal pronouns shows us the grammatical person, gender, number, and case of the noun it replaces.
Personal pronouns stand in for the people (and perhaps animals) who star in our sentences. They allow us to speak and write with economy because they enable us to avoid repeating some proper nouns all the live-long day.
We are also going to talk about where we come from, our background and cultural identity. We need to review the verb “be” since it is the most important verb in the English language. It is difficult to use because it is an irregular verb in almost all of its forms.
Also during this class, we will introduce the WH questions, they are very important to communicate and ask about specific information.
Let’s begin the class!
Desarrollo del tema
Profesiones y ocupaciones
A job, or occupation, is a person’s role in society. More specifically, a job is an activity, often regular and performed in exchange for payment. Many people have multiple jobs. Similarly, a profession is a paid occupation, especially one that involves prolonged training and a formal qualification. And finally, a career is when you do a series of connected job or employment options one after the other, then this builds up your career path. Your career is not one job, but a series of jobs. During your career, you are building up skills and moving higher to earn more bucks. At the same time, you gain skills ideal to be prestigious and have more employment opportunities.
Ocupaciones- profesiones/ Occupations-Professions: Teacher, student, accountant, artist, secretary, doctor, nurse, lawyer, engineer, architect, businessperson, musician, waiter, waitress, photographer, salesperson, clerk, reporter, manager, janitor, construction worker, farmer, carpenter, plumber, taxi driver, butcher, baker, housekeeper, tailor, politician, chef, air host/air hostess, pilot.
Áreas académicas o de trabajo/ Work areas: Accounting, administration, medicine, nursing, teaching, law, engineering, architecture, business or commerce, music, waiting/catering, photography/art, sales, media, management, cleaning services, travel and tourism.
Note: Names of jobs and professions are usually formed with the help of the suffixes ER, OR, IAN, IST, ANT, ENT.
Review the following link: Jobs and Occupations / Learn English vocabulary about professions
Here is a longer list: List of Jobs and Occupations: Learn Different Types of Jobs with Pictures
For more you can check the following page: Profesiones y ocupaciones
Read the following and learn about the key requirements, duties, responsibilities, and skills that should be in a construction accountant job since they work in the construction industry to calculate and oversee all finances of a project. Their duties include planning construction projects’ budgets, performing cost analyses, and reviewing purchase orders, invoices, and supplier contracts. Their goal is to ensure that all estimated construction costs are tracked and managed:
Construction Accountant- Job Description
We are looking to hire an experienced construction accountant to join our company. In this role, you’ll be responsible for managing the accounts of various construction projects by creating detailed budgets, overseeing supplier contracts, evaluating production costs, and verifying invoice statements.
To ensure success as a construction accountant, you should display excellent business acumen and the ability to minimize production costs through efficient accounting. Ultimately, a top-notch construction accountant is an analytical and detail-oriented individual with a high level of financial accuracy.
Construction Accountant Responsibilities:
- Collaborating with the project manager to develop a detailed, cost-effective budget for the project.
- Performing accounting duties throughout the project, such as preparing invoices, estimating cash flow, and signing off on purchase orders.
- Analyzing all transactions and working unforeseen costs into the budget.
- Keeping a record of all project finances for internal/external auditing and tax purposes.
- Preparing cost analyses by interpreting projects’ financial data and information.
- Reporting any financial risks and budgetary discrepancies to management for review.
- Researching market trends and projecting construction-related price increases/decreases.
- Developing and maintaining strong relationships with vendors and suppliers.
- Keeping abreast with both the construction and accounting industry.
Construction Accountant Requirements:
- A bachelor’s degree in accounting, finance, or a related field.
- A certification in construction accounting is preferred.
- A minimum of 3 years’ experience in private or public accounting.
- Excellent knowledge of construction cost accounting and related financial procedures.
- Familiarity with accounting software, such as QuickBooks and NetSuite.
- Working knowledge of the construction industry.
- Solid analytical and mathematical skills.
- Meticulous attention to detail and a high level of accuracy.
- Good communication and interpersonal skills.
- Ability to multitask and thrive in a fast-paced environment.
Extracted from: Descripción del trabajo de Contador de construcción
For more on job descriptions check the following video: HR Basics: Job Descriptions
Or job interviews: Tell Me About Yourself – Job Interview
What do you want to be?
Choosing a job or career is one of the most important decisions of your life. If you are like numerous young people, you don’t know the answer to the big “What do you want to be?” question, and you’re stressed about it. That is even more likely to be the case if everyone you know is asking you what you want to do.
Maybe you have a few ideas about what path you would like to pursue, but you do not know whether these ideas are realistic or not.
Maybe you’re asking yourself questions such as:
- Is it best to follow my dreams or is it best to be practical?
- When should I decide?
- Can I change my mind, or will I be locked into my career choice?
Deciding on a career is not easy. If you have not figured it out yet, you are not alone, find people who can help you with the decision. And if someone asks you what you want to be, you can answer the question truthfully: “I’m exploring my options.»
Pronombres personales/ personal pronouns
A personal pronoun can be in one of three “persons”, they stand in for the people (and perhaps animals) who star in our sentences. They allow us to speak and write with economy because they enable us to avoid repeating proper nouns all the live-long day.
Review the following : El pronombre – Parte 1
Pronombres Personales en Ingles – Personal Pronouns | Lección # 1
First-, second-, and third-person pronouns
A first-person pronoun refers to the speaker, a second-person pronoun refers to the person being spoken to, and a third-person pronoun refers to the person being spoken of. For each of these three grammatical persons, there is a plural as well.
Subject and Object Pronouns
Como lo pueden notar, you se usa igual en singular y plural. La diferenciación viene del contexto, si digo “you Martin” es como si dijera tu Martin, si digo “You Miss Perez” será usted señorita Perez…y si digo “You guys” es como si dijera ustedes chicos.
Personal pronouns can be either subjects or objects in a sentence. Subject pronouns are said to be in the nominative case, whereas object pronouns are said to be in the objective case.
The interrogative pronouns for all three persons are the same: who (nominative) and whom (objective). Many people get confused about when to use the interrogative objective pronoun whom, but it is quite easy to learn.
Mrs. Smith asked for the package to be delivered to her at the office. (her = third person singular objective)
To whom should I address my letter? (whom = interrogative objective; I = first person singular nominative)
Now we are going to talk about simple particles prepositions. They are a class of words that indicate relationships between nouns, pronouns and other words in a sentence. Most often they come before a noun. The good news is that they never change their form, regardless of the case, gender etc. of the word they are referring to.
‘At, in, on’ and »to’ are used as both time prepositions and place prepositions in English.
Preposition «In». Use «in» with
-months of the year:
- I was born in April.
- She left for school in September.
- I like skiing in winter.
- He enjoys playing tennis in Spring.
- He lives in Greece.
- The company is located in Canada.
-With city or town names:
- I was born in Seattle.
- He works in San Francisco.
-With times of the day
- I wake up early in the morning.
- She goes to school in the afternoon.
- Important exception! Use at with night:
- I sleep at night.
- He likes to go out at night.
– Use «on» with specific days of the week or year:
- We’ll meet on Friday.
- What do you do on New Year’s Day?
- He played basketball on March 5th.
- American English – «on the weekend OR on weekends»
-Use «at» with specific times of the day:
- Let’s meet at 7 o’clock.
- He has a meeting at 6.15.
- She went to a party at night.
-Use «at» with specific places in a city:
- We met at school.
- Let’s meet him at the restaurant.
- He works at a hospital.
- British English – «at the weekend OR at weekends»
For more on the difference between in, on, at: Learn English Prepositions: TO or AT?
- Use «to» with verbs which show movement such as go and come.
- He goes to school.
- She returned to the store.
- They are coming to the party tonight.
With means ‘accompanied by’ something or someone.
- I will always be with you.
- He is playing with his sisters.
- It is free with this product.
To express the relationship of a part of something to its whole. It is the most used preposition in English.
- He is a boy of 15.
- Some parts of his body were injured.
About means ‘on the subject of’ something or ‘concerning of’ something/someone. It also means ‘approximately.’
- I was about to leave.
- He cares about his classes.
- I have about 30 candies in my bag.
For means ‘with the object or purpose of’. It indicates a suiting of purpose for something/someone.
- I will always be here for you.
- I have done it for my benefit.
- Cucumber is a good vegetable for making a salad.
By means ‘as a means of’ something or someone. This preposition often comes in a passive sentence.
- Do you travel by bus/train/plane/bike?
- How is your understanding of prepositions?
- Try the exercises on the following page: Preposiciones de lugar
- How did you do?
You can always go back to the contents of the class to review them if your score was not good enough.
Some people confuse prepositions with conjunctions, but a conjunction is a word used to connect clauses or sentences or to coordinate words in the same clause, while a preposition usually describes the position of something.
So, coordinating conjunctions may join single words, or they may join groups of words, but they must always join similar elements: subject+ subject, verb phrase + verb phrase, sentence + sentence.
Coordinating conjunctions are: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so.
You can check them out in the following video: FANBOYS: Coordinating Conjunctions
Verbo be en presente simple
El tema principal de esta primera clase es el verbo TO BE (am, is, are), este verbo nos ayuda a expresar nombres, edad, nacionalidad, y profesiones. Es importante que aprendamos a conjugarlo dependiendo del pronombre personal que usemos. En las siguientes actividades entenderemos mejor el verbo TO BE.
So… In the simple present tense, to be is conjugated as follows:
There is no acceptable contraction for am not in standard English. However, you will sometimes hear people say *ain’t—which is considered unacceptable and “uneducated”. But some people also use *ain’t for you, he, she, it, and they—not only for I.
For more on the verb be, please check the following: 3 TIPS PARA ENTENDER FACIL Y RAPIDO EL VERBO TO BE | Andrés en Inglés
Realiza las siguientes actividades para practicar el tema gramatical el verbo TO BE:
Introducción a las preguntas wh
Las WH-Question Words son partículas interrogativas que utilizamos para hacer preguntas en inglés. Suelen causar mucha confusión a principiantes ya que se escriben de manera muy similar, empiezan por wh- (who, where) o contienen wh (How).
Éstas son: WHO, WHAT, WHICH, WHERE, WHEN, WHY, HOW
Como puedes revisar, cada pregunta WH tiene una función diferente.
WHO. Se utiliza para preguntar por alguien y significa «quién» o «quienes».
- Who ate the cake? (¿Quién se comió la tarta?)
- Who did you see yesterday? (¿A quién viste ayer?)
- Who were those men you were with? (¿Quienes eran esos hombres con los que estabas?)
WHAT. Se utiliza para preguntar por algo y significa «qué», «cual» o «cuales».
- What did you say? (¿Qué has dicho?)
- What is the capital of Argentina? (¿Cuál es la capital de Argentina?)
-What + nombre
- What color are her eyes? (¿De qué color son sus ojos?)
- What time is it? (¿Qué hora es?)
- What day is it today? (¿Qué día es hoy?)
-podemos añadir sort of, kind of or type of para preguntar por «qué tipo de», «qué clase de».
What sort of music do you listen to? (¿Qué tipo de música escuchas?)
WHICH. Suele confundirse con what ya que también significa «qué» o «cuál». La diferencia es que which se utiliza para preguntar por algo cuando hay varias opciones.
There are four jackets. Which is yours? (Hay cuatro chaquetas. ¿Cuál es la tuya?) (cuál de las cuatro)
We can take bus 10, 20 or 25. Which goes to the city centre? (Podemos coger el autobús número 10, 20 o 25. ¿Cuál (de ellos) va al centro?)
– Which + nombre
- Which bus did you take: 10, 20 or 25? (¿Qué autobús cogiste: el 10, el 20 o el 25?)
- Which teacher did you talk to: Amanda or Lewis? (¿Con qué profesor hablaste: con Amando o con Lewis?)
- What is the tallest building in the world? (¿Cuál es el edificio más alto del mundo?)
- Which is taller: The Eiffel Tower or The Empire State? (¿Cuál es más alto: la torre Eiffel o el Empire State?)
- What colour are her eyes? (¿De qué color tiene los ojos?)
- Which colour do you prefer: red or black? (¿Qué color prefieres: rojo o negro?)
WHERE. Se utiliza para preguntar por un lugar y significa «dónde» o «adónde».
- Where were you born? (¿Dónde naciste?)
- Where are you from? (¿De dónde eres?)
- Where is the museum? (¿Dónde está el museo?)
- When is your birthday? (¿Cuándo es tu cumpleaños?)
- When did she arrive? (¿Cuándo llegó?)
WHY. Se utiliza cuando queremos pregunte el porqué de algo. Significa «por qué».
- Why are you sad? (¿Por qué estás triste?)
- Why didn’t you tell me? (¿Por qué no me lo dijiste?)
A este tipo de preguntas se contesta con «because», que significa «porque».
- Why is she happy? (¿Por qué está feliz?)
- Because she passed her exam (porque aprobó el examen)
HOW. Se utiliza cuando queremos preguntar «cómo» o «cuán».
- How are you? (¿Cómo estás?)
- How was the party? (¿Cómo estuvo la fiesta?)
- How do you go to work? (¿Cómo vas a trabajar?)
- Variantes de how. La traducción de how variará en función del adjetivo o sustantivo que lleve detrás.
-How much «¿Cuánto? (incontables)
- How much is this t-shirt? (¿Cuánto cuesta esta camiseta?)
- How much water do you drink? (¿Cuánta agua bebes?)
-How many «¿Cuánto? (contables)
- How many friends do you have? (¿Cuántos amigos tienes?)
- How many books have you read? (¿Cuántos libros has leído?)
–How often «¿Cón qué frecuencia?» «¿cuántas veces?» «¿cada cuánto tiempo?». A esta pregunta se suele contestar con adverbios o expresiones de frecuencia.
- How often does she go to the cinema? (¿Cada cuánto tiempo va ella al cine?)
- She never goes to the cinema (ella nunca va al cine)
Información tomada de: WH- Questions words: who, what, where, when, why
For more on the WH questions review: CUÁLES son y CÓMO USAR los WH QUESTIONS
Uso De Wh Question – Oraciones Con Question Words: What, Which, Who, Whose, Where – Lección # 15
Cultural identity is the identity or feeling of belonging to a group. It is part of a person’s self-conception and self-perception and is related to nationality, ethnicity, religion, social class, generation, locality or any kind of social group that has its own distinct culture. We will review some vocabulary needed to describe your cultural identity.
Lugares/locations: Hometown, City, State, Country, Town, Village.
Paises/Countries: Mexico, USA, China, Canada, Japan, Brazil, Spain, Italy, France, Germany, England, Holland, Turkey, Greece, Russia, India.
Nacionalidades/ Nationalities: Mexican, American, Chinese, Canadian, Japanese, Brazilian, Spanish, Italian, French, German, English, Dutch, Turkish, Greek, Russian, Hindi.
Lenguas/ Languages: Spanish, English, Chinese, Japanese, Portuguese, Italian, French, German, Dutch, Turkish, Greek, Russian, Hindi.
Podemos usar este vocabulario para hablar de nuestra identidad.
Revisemos como presentar esto en el siguiente video: Talking about countries and nationalities : English Language
Even English has different accents check the following video: One language, three accents
American vs. British vs. Australian English | One Language, Three Accents
Ahora, con este vocabulario, más el verbo be y preguntas WH ya puedes preguntarle a alguien de dónde es, cuál es su nacionalidad, qué lengua habla o cuál es su ciudad, Seguro que ya puedes comunicarte con mucha más seguridad.
Los sujetos pueden referirse como primera, segunda y tercera persona, en plural y singular.
1ra persona singular: I
2da persona singular: You
3ra persona singular: He, she, it
1ra persona plural: We
2da persona plural: You
3ra persona plural: They
Es importante identificar la tercera persona en singular (he,she,it) pues más adelante requerimos saber a qué se refiere para poder trabajar con ciertas excepciones que aplican a estos sujetos.
*Remember that English uses the same word, you, for both the second person singular and plural.
The verb is the most important verb and goes as follows:
|Afirmativo||Afirmativo Contraído||Negativo||Negativo Contraído||Interrogativo|
|I am||I´m||I am not||I´m not||Am I?|
|You are||You´re||You are not||You aren’t||Are you?|
|He is||He´s||He is not||He isn´t||Is he?|
|She is||She´s||She is not||She isn´t||Is she?|
|It is||It´s||It is not||It isn´t||Is it?|
|We are||We´re||We are not||We aren’t||Are we?|
|You are||You´re||You are not||You aren’t||Are you?|
|They are||They´re||They are not||They aren’t||Are they?|
Recuerda también que las Wh Questions son un grupo de preguntas que se caracterizan porque en su nombre tienen las letras «wh-» al inicio, excepto por uno de sus casos. Las Wh Questions más frecuentes son:
What : qué o cuál
Why : por qué
When : cuándo
Where : dónde
Who : quién
Which : cuál
How : cómo
Estos contenidos son muy importantes para los siguientes niveles de la lengua, tenlos siempre frescos. Has concluido esta clase, no olvides trabajar la correspondiente consigna.