Clase digital 7. Familia y amigos

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Familia y amigos


Welcome to class 7!

We will be talking about family.

Your family members are also called your relatives. You have an immediate or nuclear family and an extended family. Your immediate family includes your father, mother and siblings. Your extended family includes all of the people in your father and mother’s families.

Your sibling is your brother or sister. If you have 1 brother and 2 sisters, then you have 3 siblings. Your parent, is your father or mother. Your child is your son or daughter. Your spouse is your husband or wife.

You may also have a stepfamily. Your stepfamily includes people who became part of your family due to changes in family life. These changes may include death, divorce or separation. New partnerships create new children. The new children and their relatives become part of your blended family. Some people are born into a stepfamily.

Note that spouses and step-relatives are relatives by marriage. They are not blood relatives. Your father and mother are related by marriage. But your father and you are related by blood.

Let’s go and analyze this further.

Desarrollo del tema

Familia y amigos

Familia / Family: mother / mom, father / dad, parents, brother, sister, daughter, son, siblings, grandmother, grandfather, grandparents, aunt, uncle, cousin, niece, nephew.

Imagen 1. Árbol genealógico.

Amigos / Friends: friend, classmate, best friend, boyfriend, girlfriend, partner, colleague, neighbor / neighbour, work / business colleague.

For more on the family vocabulary go to:


The Simpsons are a nuclear family consisting of married couple Homer and Marge and their three children Bart, Lisa, and Maggie. They live at 742 Evergreen Terrace in the fictional town of Springfield, United States. The most commonly recurring characters are Homer’s father Abraham «Grampa» Simpson; Marge’s sisters Patty and Selma Bouvier; and the family’s two pets, Santa’s Little Helper and Snowball II. Other family members include Homer’s mother Mona Simpson, Homer’s half-brother Herbert Powell, Marge’s mother Jacqueline Bouvier, and other minor relatives.

(The Simpsons, taken from:

Verbo Have / Has afirmativo

Recuerdas el verbo “have”, es muy relevante ahora que queremos decir que familiares tenemos.

Have and has are different forms of the verb to have. Even though they come from the same word, there are slight differences in the way they’re used. Have is used with I, you, we, and they, while has is used with he, she, and it. The verb to have has many different meanings. Its primary meaning is “to possess, own, hold for use, or contain.”

Tabla 1. Verbo «have» afirmativo.

I have
You have
He / She / It has
We have
You have
They have

For more on the have/has check the following.

Adjetivos posesivos y el genitivo ( ‘s )

Los adjetivos posesivos se usan para mostrar pertenencia y son similares a los pronombres posesivos, pero los adjetivos posesivos siempre se colocan antes de un sustantivo. Los adjetivos posesivos funcionan como adjetivos, modificando el sustantivo.

Estos son los adjetivos posesivos y los sujetos que representan:

Tabla 2. Adjetivos posesivos.

SujetoAdjetivo posesivo
You (singular)Your
You (plural)Your

Estructura de la oración:

adjetivo posesivo + sustantivo

El genitivo “-s” . No se debe confundir con los pronombres posesivos.

Así podemos decir:

Her dress…(Su vestido…[de ella]) O podemos decir: Andrea‘s dress…(El vestido de Andrea…)

En ambos casos expresamos un poseedor y un poseído, en este caso el vestido. En la primera frase, el pronombre posesivo femenino “her” indica que tanto el hablante como el oyente acaban de hacer referencia a la misma persona. En cambio, en el segundo caso, el hablante quiere dar a conocer el nombre del poseedor.

Grammatical Rules (Reglas gramaticales)

  1. Siempre utilizamos el genitivo para referirnos a personas:
    • Paul‘s house…(La casa de Paul…)
    • Mary‘s bike…(La bicicleta de Maria…)
  2. Cuando nos referimos a cosas o lugares utilizaremos la preposición “of”:
    • The wheel of the bike…(La rueda de la bicicleta…)
    • Washington is the capital of the United States. (Washington es la capital de los Estados Unidos.)
  3. También podemos utilizar el genitivo al final de la oración que acostumbra a ser la respuesta a una pregunta anterior. En estos casos no necesitamos el nombre.
    • Where is your sister? (¿Dónde está tu hermana?) She is at my parents’. (Está en la casa de mis padres).
    • Whose house is this? (¿De quién es esta casa?) It is Michael‘s. (Es de Miguel).
  4. Cuando hay más de un poseedor, el apóstrofe viene después de la “s”.
    • The girls toys….(los juguetes de las niñas…)
    • The students exams…(los exámenes de los estudiantes…)


Cuando el nombre del poseedor termina en una “s”, el genitivo se añade al final del poseedor, pero sólo añadiendo el apóstrofo y no la “-s” del genitivo.

Luis house…(La casa de Luis….)

For more information on possessives go to:

Pronombres posesivos

No confundas los adjetivos posesivos con los pronombres posesivos, pues estos también muestran pertenencia, pero los pronombres posesivos se colocan después del sustantivo o el objeto.

Tabla 3. Pronombres posesivos.

SujetoPronombre posesivo
You (singular)Yours
You (plural)Yours


  • The hat you found is mine (Pronombre posesivo)
  • That is my hat (Adjetivo posesivo)

Pronombres objetivo

Los personal object pronouns son palabras que se utilizan para sustituir a un nombre y así evitar repeticiones. La principal diferencia entre los personal pronouns y los personal object pronouns es que mientras que los primeros reemplazan a un nombre que hace la función de sujeto, los segundos sustituyen a un nombre que no hace función de sujeto.

Una de las principales características de los personal object pronouns es que se sitúan detrás del verbo o bien detrás de una preposición (at, for, with, etc.).For more on the object pronouns check the following:

Plurales irregulares

Así como en español, e inglés para hablar de muchos objetos solo se agrega una “s” al sujeto en individual, esos son los plurales regulares, pero en inglés también existen los plurales irregulares de los que hablaremos a continuación.

Plural noun rules

There are many plural noun rules, and because we use nouns so frequently when writing, it’s important to know all of them! The correct spelling of plurals usually depends on what letter the singular noun ends in.

  1. To make regular nouns plural, add ‑s to the end.
    • cat – cats
    • house – houses
  2. If the singular noun ends in ‑s, -ss, -sh, -ch, -x, or -z, add ‑es to the end to make it plural.
    • class – classes
    • bus – buses
    • marsh – marshes
    • bush -bushes
    • box -boxes
    • quiz- quizzes
  3. In some cases, singular nouns ending in -s or -z, require that you double the -s or -z prior to adding the -es for pluralization.
    • fez – fezzes
    • gas –gasses
  4. If the noun ends with ‑f or ‑fe, the f is often changed to ‑ve before adding the -s to form the plural version.
    • wife – wives
    • wolf – wolves
    • Exceptions:
      • roof – roofs
      • belief – beliefs
      • chef – chefs
      • chief – chiefs
  5. If a singular noun ends in ‑y and the letter before the -y is a consonant, change the ending to ‑ies to make the noun plural.
    • baby – babies
    • country – countries
    • puppy – puppies
  6. If the singular noun ends in -y and the letter before the -y is a vowel, simply add an -s to make it plural.
    • ray – rays
    • boy – boys
  7. If the singular noun ends in ‑o, add ‑es to make it plural.
    • potato – potatoes
    • tomato – tomatoes
    • hero – heroes
    • mango – mangoes
    • Exceptions:
      • photo – photos
      • piano – pianos
      • halo – halos
    • With the unique word volcano, you can apply the standard pluralization for words that end in -o or not. It’s your choice! Both of the following are correct:
      • volcanoes
      • volcanos
  8. If the singular noun ends in ‑us, the plural ending is frequently ‑i.
    • cactus – cacti
    • focus – foci
  9. If the singular noun ends in ‑is, the plural ending is ‑es.
    • analysis – analyses
    • ellipsis – ellipses
  10. If the singular noun ends in ‑on, the plural ending is ‑a.
    • phenomenon – phenomena
    • criterion – criteria
  11. Some nouns don’t change at all when they’re pluralized.
    • fish – fish
    • sheep – sheep
    • series – series
    • species – species
    • deer – deer

Irregular Nouns. Most singular nouns are made plural by simply putting an -s at the end. There are many different rules regarding pluralization depending on what letter a noun ends in. Irregular nouns do not follow plural noun rules, so they must be memorized or looked up in the dictionary. You’re probably familiar with many of these already. For example, the plural form of man is men, not mans. The plural form of woman is “women”, not “womans”. There are hundreds of irregular plural nouns, and in truth, you must memorize them through reading and speaking. There are, however, some common patterns to look out for.

These next ones change substantially, for a variety of historical reasons, some words change in spelling substantially when made plural. Most people do not get it right, so you will be impressive when you show that you know how it is done.

Tabla 4. Sustantivos irregulares.


For more on the irregular plurals check the following videos.

Try pluralizing the following:

  • hoof
  • guppy
  • study
  • tray
  • nanny
  • loaf
  • father-in-law


Recuerda que en presente simple el verbo HAVE tiene dos conjugaciones: HAVE or HAS.

  • HAVE se usa con los pronombres personales: I, You, We, They.
  • HAS se usa con la tercera persona del singular en inglés; es decir, los pronombres: He, She, It (animal, cosa o lugar). Esta diferencia en el presente simple sólo aplica para las oraciones en afirmativo. No aplica ni para las oraciones interrogativas ni para las negativas.

The possessive form is used with nouns referring to people, groups of people, countries, and animals. It shows a relationship of belonging between one thing and another.

To show property we can work with:

  • genitive ( ‘s )
  • possessive adjectives
  • possessive pronouns

En resumen, los possessive adjectives se colocan antes del objeto, mientras que los possessive personal pronouns muestran pertenencia, pero se colocan después del sustantivo o el objeto.

Además, los personal object pronouns sustituyen a los nombres que hacen función de objeto, es decir, a la persona, animal o cosa que recibe directa o indirectamente la acción expresada por el verbo. Siempre se colocan detrás de un verbo o una preposición.

Here is a summary of the adjectives and pronouns from this lesson.

Tabla 5. Pronombres personales. adjetivo posesivo, pronombre posesivo y pronombre objeto.

I amI’mI am notI’m notAm I?
You areYou’reYou are notYou aren’tAre you?
He isHe’sHe is notHe isn’tIs he?
She isShe’sShe is notShe isn’tIs she?
It isIt’sIt is notIt isn’tIs it?
We areWe’reWe are notWe aren’tAre we?
You areYou’reYou are notYou aren’tAre you?
They areThey’reThey are notThey aren’tAre they?

Rules for plural nouns:

  • Add “s
  • ends “y” / add “-ies
  • ends “ch, -x, -s, -sh, -z, -s” / add “-es
  • ends “f”, “-fe”/ add “-efe
  • ends “o / add “-es

Completely irregular: child / children, person / people, man / men, woman / women, tooth / teeth, foot / feet, mouse / mice, goose / geese.

Don´t forget your consignas for this class. See you next time.