Mi información básica con números
Welcome back to Class 2.
We will be talking about numbers.
Numbers play an important role in our lives. Almost all the things we do involve numbers and Mathematics. Whether we like it or not, our life revolves in numbers since the day we were born. There are numerous numbers directly or indirectly connected to our lives.
The following are some uses of numbers in our daily life:
- Calling a member of a family or a friend using a mobile phone.
- Calculating your daily budget for your food, transportation, and other expenses.
- Cooking, or anything that involves the idea of proportion and percentage.
- Weighing fruits, vegetables, meat, chicken, and others in the market.
- Using elevators to go places or floors in the building.
- Looking at the price of discounted items in a shopping mall.
- Looking for the number of people who liked your post on Facebook.
- Switching the channels of your favorite TV shows.
- Telling time you spent on work or school.
- Computing the interest you gained on your business.
So… numbers are part of our basic information and everyday life.
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Mi información básica con números
Imagen 1. Los números.
Do you know the spelling of the numbers 1-1,000,000?
They are easy, because you only must know the first 20 and then the rest of the tens (30-90) and then just make combinations.
Tabla 1. Numeración.
Now you can understand numbers 0 to 100, 1000, 2000, 3000…even 1,000,000. This numbers are cardinal numbers.
For correct pronunciation check the following video:
Ordinales y cardinales
Tabla 2. Números ordinales y cardinales.
A Cardinal Number is a number that says how many of something there are, such as one, two, three, four, five. But an Ordinal Number is a number that tells the position of something in a list, such as 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th etc.
Check the pronunciation of ordinal numbers in the following video:
Signos de operaciones básicas (suma, resta, división y multiplicación)
Tabla 3. Signos de operaciones básicas.
The basic math operations are:
- Add is a verb. Meaning: To put two or more numbers together to calculate the sum. The addition is the process of adding numbers together to calculate the sum. Examples:
- Four plus six equals ten.
- The sum of four and six is ten.
- If you add four to six, you get ten.
- Subtraction: Means the process of removing a number from another number. “subtract” is a verb. Meaning: to remove a number from another number. Example:
- If you subtract three from eight, you get five.
- “Take away” is a verb also used for subtraction. It is more informal than “subtract” but it is very common. Example:
- Take three away from eight. What is the answer?
- Multiplication is a noun. Meaning: The process of multiplying a number. It means times (or repeated addition). The symbol used for multiplication is ‘×’. Examples:
- Six multiplied by four equals twenty-four. or
- Six times four equals twenty-four.
- “Product” is a noun. Meaning: The result of a multiplication calculation. Example:
- The product of six and four is twenty-four.
- Multiply is the verb for multiplication. Example:
- If you multiply six by four, you get twenty-four.
- Division” is a noun. Division «undoes» multiplication and involves a number called the dividend being «divided» by another number called the divisor. The symbol used for division is ‘÷’. Example:
- Fifteen divided by three equals five.
For more on the basic operations go to:
We also use numbers when talking about time.
Everyone studies numbers when they first start learning a new language. However, talking about time involves more than the numbers on the clock. Being able to ask questions and talk about time is fundamental to speaking any language. So instead of simply saying the numbers that you see on the clock, you can sound like a native by using the same phrases and terms that most English speakers do. The words and phrases in this class can be used when you are traveling, and they can even be part of your daily journals for English practice.
Días de la semana y meses del año
Imagen 3. Calendario.
Momentos del día/moments of the day:
Morning, noon, afternoon, evening, night, midnight.
The Time of Day
While numbers will tell you the exact time, it’s also common to talk about the general time of the day instead of being specific. Here are some common words and phrases which are used in reference to time.
- Morning. The term «morning» refers to the time when the day begins, which is any time between 12am to 12pm.
- Noon. When someone says «noon» it refers to 12pm, and it is the start of the afternoon.
- Afternoon. The term «afternoon» refers to any time between 12pm to 6pm, which is literally after noon.
- Evening. The term “evening” refers to the time between 6 pm and 12 am so the period of time between afternoon and bedtime. Some get it confused with “night” (which is all the period of darkness in each twenty-four hours; the time from sunset to sunrise).
- Midnight. As its name suggests, «midnight» refers to the middle of the night, which is any time between 12am to 3am.
Horas / Hours: o’clock, past, after, before, half, a quarter
O’Clock: The phrase «o’clock» comes from the meaning ‘of the clock’ and is used when you are referencing time on the hour. It works for every hour on the clock, am and pm, but cannot be used when including minutes.
When you are referring to the exact time, there are two ways in which you can do this:
- Say the hour first, followed by the minutes:
- 8:20 – It’s eight twenty
- 0:05 – It’s ten o-five
- 17:40 – It’s five forty
- Say the minutes first followed by the hour:
- 4:35 – It’s twenty-five to five
- 3:20 – It’s twenty past three
- 19:18 – It’s eighteen past seven
- Quarter past. When people use the term «quarter past» it means that it is a quarter past the hour, example: 15 minutes past four.
- Half past. When people use the term «half past» it means that it is half past the hour, example: 30 minutes past four.
- Quarter to. When people use the term «quarter to» it means that it is a quarter to the approaching hour, example: 15 minutes until five.
- Minor differences. In the USA, Americans refer to the exact time rather than splitting it into halves and quarters. For example, in American English people will say «four thirty,» whereas in the UK people will say «it’s half past four».
Asking for the time
Now that you’ve learned how to talk about the time in English, the next step is learning how to ask for the time.
The most common ways of asking for the time are:
- What time is it? It is…
- What is the time?
- Could you tell me the time please?
- Do you have the time?
- What time are we meeting?
- What day is today?
To learn how to answer check the following video:
Practiquemos un poco, checa los siguientes relojes, identifica la respuesta: what time is it?
Imagen 4. Adivina las horas.
Días de la semana / Days of the week:
Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday, Saturday, Sunday.
The following video refers to the days of the week:
The next song talks about what happens during the week. What happens on Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday? and we know: Friday I’m in love.
Here is the same song with lyrics
Meses de año / months:
January, February, March, April, May, June, July, August, September, October, November, December.
Fechas / Dates:
Te parecerá algo muy básico, pero escribir las fechas y meses del año en inglés tiene su truco. La forma en que se escriben las fechas es distinta en diferentes partes del mundo e incluso puede variar de acuerdo con el estilo de la persona que escriba. El inglés no es la excepción, y la forma en la que se escriben las fechas varía entre el inglés de Estados Unidos y el inglés de Inglaterra.
Otra característica particular es que algunos países anglófonos, particularmente Estados Unidos, Canadá y Australia, consideran el domingo como el inicio de la semana y no el lunes como la mayor parte de los países del mundo. Otra cosa que deberás aprender para dominar el manejo de las fechas en inglés son los números ordinales.
En Estados Unidos al escribir la fecha se debe escribir primero el mes, después el día y finalmente el año. Aunque en inglés británico las fechas se escriben igual que en español. Primero el día, después el mes y finalmente el año.
Example: Monday, June 13th. /Monday 13th of June.
Ten en cuenta que tanto en inglés británico como en inglés americano se escribe un cero antecediendo a los números simples. Es decir, lo correcto es escribir, por ejemplo: January 02 y no January 2, pasa lo mismo con los meses en la versión numérica de la escritura de la fecha.
Si te refieres a un año antes del 2000 deberás dividirlo en dos partes, por ejemplo: 1987 se dice nineteen eighty five, 1900 se dice nineteen hundred.
- Los años entre el 2000 y 2009 no se dividen. 2000 se dice simplemente two thousand, 2001 two thousand and one y así sucesivamente.
- A partir del 2010 se dividen en 20 y 10. 2018 se dice twenty eighteen, 2011 twenty eleven y así sucesivamente.
Check the following video to find how to form the Dates
Estaciones del año / Seasons:
Winter, Spring, Summer, Fall/Autumn.
For more on the seasons, check the following video:
Numbers can be cardinal or ordinal. In English, cardinal numbers (for example, «one,» «two,» or «three») refer to quantity, whereas ordinal numbers («first,» «second,» or «third») refer to distribution. Ordinal numbers are used in dates and fractions. They are employed as adjectives to describe importance, position in a list, and placement in time.
Generally, ordinal numbers are created by adding -th to the end of the cardinal number. However, there are exceptions for the numbers one (first), two (second), three (third), five (fifth), eight (eighth), nine (ninth), and twelve (twelfth).
The four basic mathematical operations are: Addition, subtraction, multiplication and division.
Adding two (or more) numbers means to find their sum (or total).
Subtracting one number from another number is to find the difference between them.
Multiplication means times (or repeated addition). A product is the result of the multiplication of two (or more) numbers.
Division ‘undoes’ multiplication.
There are two common ways of telling the time.
- Formal but easier way: Say the hours first and then the minutes. For minutes 01 through 09, you can pronounce the ‘0’ as oh.
More popular way
- Say the minutes first and then the hours. Use past and the preceding hour for minutes 01 through 30. Use “to” and the next forthcoming hour, for minutes 31 through 59.