Hello!!! Welcome back to class 4.
In this opportunity we are going to review:
- Vida animal
- Introducción a los patrones de verbo
So, as you can see the vocabulary is regarding animal life, so we will do exercises and learn the names of some wild animals, domestic ones, and even sea animals, while practicing conjunctions and some verb patterns.
Let’s start with the lesson.
Desarrollo del tema
Animals are the living beings that we share the Earth with. Some animals are domestic which means they are tamed and not wild. Some domestic animals are kept for farming purposes while pets are kept as companions. Wild animals are untamed, and they live in their natural environment. There are many kinds of animals, so we put them into some groups. Basic animal groups are mammals (lion, elephant, zebra etc.), reptiles (crocodile, cobra, chameleon etc.), birds (eagle, crow, duck etc.), invertebrates (insects, worms, sponges etc.), fish (sharks, salmon etc.) and amphibians (salamanders, frogs etc.).
Here is some vocabulary about it, Domestic and farm animals: dog, cat, donkey, horse, cow, goat, pig, hen, rooster, mouse (mice), rabbit, canary, goose (geese), sheep. Zoo, kennel, field, cage, nature reserve, natural environment, farm, barn.
Farm animals can be reviewed on the following video:
Make sure to you fully review the next vocabulary about Wild animals: bird, eagle, bee, insect, butterfly, bear, moose, tiger, lion, crocodile, giraffe, wolf / wolves, snake, bat, deer.
Practice the vocabulary that you just learn in the following link:
Animales marinos / Sea animals: fish, dolphin, turtle, shark, whale, crab, shellfish, octopus, sea horse, shrimp, lobster, jelly fish, oysters.
Here is a video about Sea animals:
So … after reviewing all these words, can you mention:
- What is your favorite animal?
- If you were a sea animal, which one would you be?
Introducción a los patrones de verbo
Patrones de Verbo / Verb Patterns
To learn about What are Verb Patterns? in the following video:
In English, when a verb is followed by another verb, the second verb may be an infinitive (to go), bare infinitive (go) or -ing form (going). It all depends on the first verb.
- I want to buy an electric car.
The first verb is «want«, the second verb is «buy«.
In sentences like this, there are different possible patterns.
- I want to buy an electric car.
- I hate driving.
In sentence A, the first verb is followed by an infinitive.
In sentence B, the first verb is followed by a gerund (-ing) form.
The verb patterns are dependent upon the first verb. There are several different types of pattern. When you learn a new verb, you need to learn the verb pattern. Unfortunately, some verbs have more than one possible pattern! Sometimes, if a verb has two patterns, each pattern can have a different meaning or use.
Let’s distinguish between Gerund and infinitives:
Verb patters listening:
Gameshow verb patterns:
This is important to understand what are simple and compound sentences:
We can see that without conjunctions, you’d be forced to express every complex idea in a series of short, simplistic sentences:
- I like cooking
- I like eating
- I do not like washing dishes afterward.
Conjunctions are words that link other words, phrases, or clauses together.
Conjunctions allow you to form complex, elegant sentences and avoid the choppiness of multiple short sentences. Make sure that the phrases joined by conjunctions are parallel (share the same structure).
- I work quickly and carefully.
In the next video you can see what Conjunctions are:
From the video we infer that conjunctions can be coordinating or subordinating. Let’s explain them in detail.
- Coordinating conjunctions: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so.
Coordinating conjunctions allow you to join words, phrases, and clauses of equal grammatical rank in a sentence. The most common coordinating conjunctions are for, and, nor, but, or, yet, and so; you can remember them by using the mnemonic device FANBOYS.
Here is a video on Coordination conjunctions:
- Subordinating conjunctions: although, because, since, unless, therefore.
Before we explained check the material in the next video about Subordinating conjunctions:
Now we know that Subordinating conjunctions join independent and dependent clauses. A subordinating conjunction can signal a cause-and-effect relationship, a contrast, or some other kind of relationship between the clauses. Common subordinating conjunctions are because, since, as, although, though, while, and whereas. Sometimes an adverb, such as until, after, or before can function as a conjunction.
- I can stay out until the clock strikes twelve.
Here, the adverb until functions as a subordinating conjunction to connect two ideas: I can stay out (the independent clause), and the clock strikes twelve (the dependent clause). The independent clause could stand alone as a sentence; the dependent clause depends on the independent clause to make sense.
The subordinating conjunction does not need to go in the middle of the sentence. It must be part of the dependent clause, but the dependent clause can come before the independent clause.
- Before he leaves, make sure his room is clean.
If the dependent clause comes first, use a comma before the independent clause.
To test your comprehension on conjunctions you can go to:
Conjunctions have an important function because they join other words and phrases together. Without conjunctions, we could only make very simple sentences. A conjunction is a word like and, but, although, because.
Conjunctions have two basic functions or «jobs«:
- Coordinating conjunctions, used to join two parts of a sentence that are grammatically equal. The two parts may be single words or clauses. Coordinating conjunctions always come between the words or clauses that they join.
- Subordinating conjunctions, used to join a subordinate dependent clause to a main clause. Subordinating conjunctions usually come at the beginning of the subordinate clause.
It is very important that you practice what you learned, don’t forget to do your consignas.
See you next class.
Fuentes de información
- Names of Animals in English: Flashcards Tests Pronunciations. Recuperado de https://www.learnenglish.com/vocabulary/animals/learn-animals-vocabulary-in-english/
- What Are Conjunctions? Definition and Examples. Recuperado de https://www.grammarly.com/blog/conjunctions/